These same studies show lower radioactivity levels in the blood, kidneys, and liver, suggesting that metabolite formation and elimination are rapid. Since toluene has not been deemed a carcinogen, many companies list toluene as an ingredient without warnings. M.H. This means that a product that is 60% toluene would have been 3% benzene. Toluene vapor is exhaled unchanged, while the rest enters the bloodstream via absorption from the alveoli. Approximately 6 million metric tons of toluene are sold in the US each year and at $500 per ton, that is $3 billion in sales. Neuroimaging studies typically reveal diffuse atrophy and decreased gray–white differentiation. Toluene is added to gasoline to increase the octane ratings and it is used in the printing industry. Indeed, animal and human investigations have demonstrated a positive correlation between toluene levels in alveolar air and in blood, with toluene being found in arterial and venous blood within 2 min of exposure onset. When users of their products get sick and ask for relief, these companies argue that toluene is not classified as a carcinogen and are often successful getting lawsuits dismissed. Urine hippuric acid levels are recommended at the end of shifts as a means of monitoring levels. Filed Under: Featured for Drug Addiction, Drug Addiction, Chris Foy is a content manager and webmaster for FHE Health with years of experience in the addiction treatment industry...read more. Dementia is the most disabling aspect of the syndrome, characterized by apathy, memory loss, visuospatial deficits, and preserved language function. Inhalant abusers are given counseling, psychotherapy, appropriate medications and group therapy to address their addiction to toluene and benzene. A person’s vitals are constantly monitored while undergoing detoxification from inhalants, and appropriate medications are prescribed to relieve withdrawal symptoms. Entering a medical detoxification program is essential for treating an addiction to toluene and benzene. Long-term exposure to benzene also harms bone marrow, where new blood cells are made. Chronic toluene abuse can also cause a serious neurological disorder called toluene leukoencephalopathy, a type of dementia that is irreversible. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Complete biodegradation of toluene was observed in laboratory microcosm tests during a 40 h incubation period using soils previously exposed to toluene. Toluene is rapidly absorbed and is detectable in the arterial blood within about 10 s of inhalation exposure.