Durant cette période, les États-Unis combattait trois guerres autochtones en même temps que la colonisation progressait vers l'Ouest. School groups will be booked on the hour and half past the hour. Steeped in history and culture Fort Walsh gives a hands on experience that takes you back to a time when: “Fort Walsh would quickly become the most important, largest and most heavily armed fort the North West Mounted Police garrisoned during their early years in the West." The first thing Walsh did was shut down the illegal whiskey trade which was wreaking havoc on the indigenous population. De plus, pour pouvoir fournir aux fermiers les titres légaux de leurs fermes, le droit des indiens à la terre devait être éliminé à travers le processus de la création des traités. At Fort Walsh the horses were raised to three year olds, halter broken, and branded (later tattooed). Si le peuple Lakota se rendait, il n'y aurait plus d'hostilités. By this time many people had been killed, including most of the other chiefs. Fort Walsh quickly became the largest and most heavily armed fort in the NWMP’s possession. We encourage all groups, whether planning a self-guided visit or taking part in a heritage presentation program, to reserve ahead of time to secure your space to avoid congestion and potential delays. at Maple Creek in the spring of 1883 supplies were now obtainable directly from the East. Même s'ils étaient équipés et préparés pour la guerre, les membres de la Police à cheval du Nord-Ouest négociaient pacifiquement avec des peuples désespérés et avec des guerriers formidables des deux côtés de la frontière internationale, et cela sans jamais y avoir eu de coups de feu. It is amusing to realize that some of the "policemen" are actually young women whose hair is tucked up inside under their white helmets! La boisson coulait à flot et plusieurs commerçants et chasseurs de loups se connaissaient. Avec empressement, les commerçants accompagnés par quelques chasseurs de loups, ramassèrent leurs possessions, brûlèrent les postes et prirent la route pour se rendre à Fort Benton. Then they were driven to Maple Creek, loaded on the train and shipped to Depot in Regina (later the horses were shipped by semi-trailer). His funeral was an elaborate affair, and his coffin rode on a gun-carriage accompanied by a marching band and military escort. Inter-tribal strife was also a possibility. In 1883 it was decommissioned and the garrison moved to a new fort close to current day Maple Creek. There were the Nakoda, at least ten Métis freighters with their Red River Carts and oxen, and the people of the two trading forts: nine or ten at Farwell's, including at least two women; and six at Solomon's. Il retourna en Ontario, à Brockville, et acheta sa maison appelée « Falaise indienne », nommé d'après la localisation près de Wood Mountain. Durant 1882, les policiers à cheval intensifièrent la nuit, leurs patouilles à l'extérieur du fort et occasionnellement lançaient des fusées pour intimider ceux qui auraient oser attaquer. 258 American soldiers were killed including the imbecilely over confident General George Custer. Il était ambitieux mais aussi honnête et juste. Il existait désormais qu'un petit détachement à Fort-Walsh et cela ne faisait aucun sens de transporter le ravitaillement sur une distance additionnelle de cinquante milles à travers un pays aussi raboteux et sauvage. assimilated into the governing European culture. Moses Solomon operated one whiskey-fort, and a short distance away across the stream which would become known as Battle Creek, the other was owned by Abel Farwell. You can read a detailed account of the events in the Parks Canada website. The refugees were not offered any more support and there just were not enough bison and other game left to support their numbers. Trade Talk: Explore trade relations from First Nations perspective. Une des premières tâches qu'a dû faire la Police à cheval du Nord-Ouest à son arrivée l'année suivante, fut d'investiguer le massacre des collines Cypress. Remount Ranch at Fort Walsh then started the process of raising the large black horses which have become an integral part of the R.C.M.P. Unlike many early Canadian buildings, these have paned glass windows. Mais le vol de chevaux fit, plus tard, partie de la culture des indiens des plaines. Les autochtones « canadiens » dont certains étaient les ennemis du peuple Lakota, n'étaient pas heureux de les voir venir se réfugier au Canada. There were thus quite a number of people living at the quiet creek-bend in the Battle Creek valley that June first of 1873. Since the fort was decommissioned sand dismantled in 1883, you might ask, “Then what’s this I’m looking at?” Recognizing the importance of the site of Fort Walsh it was designated a National Historic Site in 1924 and then in the 1940’s partially rebuilt to serve another purpose for the RCMP which I’ll reveal when we get there. After the Lakota refugees came to Canada Fort Walsh was reinforced. found themselves extensively involved in aiding Indian Department officials to convince Native leaders that what the government proposed was truly in their best interests. In 1883 the fort was closed and dismantled. New barracks and stables were constructed; more shops and facilities were added. Ils se firent dire que le gouvernement les placerait sur des réserves et les aiderait à s'habituer à la vie agricole. devaient être noirs. Wood also felt the rugged terrain of the Cypress Hills would also help raise hearty and well muscled horses. Battle Creek is not much to look at, maybe twenty feet wide at the most, but it is unusual for a Canadian watercourse. Les bâtiments sont virtuellement identiques aux originaux, ils sont localisés aux mêmes endroits, et ont la même utilité qu'à l'époque de l'ancien fort. George had unwisely rewarded this kindness with a keg of rot-gut. Ways to Experience Fort Walsh National Historic Site. Sask. La situation s'envenima avec le temps en même temps que la population des bisons disparaissait. With the railway and the seat of territorial government arriving at Regina it was decided that headquarters should be moved to that more centrally-located community. One of the wolfers was also killed. They arrested, prosecuted and sat in judgement of offenders. Walsh would become perhaps a little too enamored of western frontier life, but during the unsettled days of the late 1870s he was the right man at the right place at the right time. But Walsh did succeed in convincing about 4,000 of these refugees to return, and it was only Sitting Bull, who had vowed never to return, and his immediate following who continued to hold out. Nommés chasseurs de loups et ce nom les décrivait parfaitement bien, ces hommes chassaient le loup pour sa fourrure en empoisonnant les carcasses des bisons avec de la strychnine. studied period photographs and drawings of old Fort Walsh, and conducted interviews with N.W.M.P. Hammond trébuchant, entra dans le camp et ramassa deux chevaux qui dirigea vers la sortie. Everywhere we went inside the gates of Fort Walsh we were accompanied by Nappy, a presumably orphaned calf, as we saw no signs of her mother. Between them they employed at least thirteen whiskey traders. Le superintendant L.N.F. Crozier by-passed Sitting Bull and talked to other leaders, thus undermining Sitting Bull's authority. Other atrocities occurred throughout the night. Farwell told them he had heard nothing, and he assured them the nearby Nakoda camp were not the culprits, as they only had a very few thin horses as a result of the hard winter. Please check in with the visitor kiosk in the parking lot. At the entrance we are met by Ariel, our guide, and a bespectacled NWMP sergeant. Many of the traders and wolfers knew each other, and a party was soon under way at Solomon's post. This was the headquarters of the North-West Mounted Police (forerunners of today's Mounties) from 1878 to 1882. Dans la vie civile Walsh atteignit le respect et l'admiration qu'il sentait lui être refusé par tous, à l'exception des hommes fidèles de la troupe « B » durant sa carrière avec la Police à cheval du Nord-Ouest. Step back in time to the 1870s and discover what life was like on a working fort in the lawless time of rotgut whiskey runners. They would have to go back to the United States, or starve. At the same time Farwell's interpreter, Alexis Lebombard, shouted across the creek to Hammond that his horse had just turned up, but Hammond did not appear to hear him. La scène du massacre des collines Cypress s'est produite tout près de deux de ces postes. It would be the subject of many newspaper articles, and controversial court proceedings in both the United States and Canada. Guns and horses were all the Lakota had. En même temps le gouvernement britannique ne voulait pas paraître trop se soumettre aux demandes américaines en ce qui avait trait au retour des réfugiés du Lakota. The fort was established to create some sort of law enforcement in this area. As a young man just out of school he tried a number of different occupations. Les chefs des Premières nations réalisèrent que les policiers à cheval du Nord-Ouest pouvaient devenir des alliés et conseillers cruciaux lors de futures négociations avec le gouvernement. The Hudson's Bay Company, to whose nominal control this territory belonged, seldom ventured into these southern areas, and the bison robe trade was left to the American free-lancers. Le groupe était en route vers le Fort Benton avec un chargement de pelleteries sur leurs chevaux de selle, suivi de leur convoi lorsque quatre membres du parti de guerre Cri de la bande de Kakiwishtahaw volèrent plus de quarante de leurs chevaux. He hated the Americans, and did not trust them. They managed to gain the trust and friendship of Sitting Bull by not siding with the Americans and at first, helping out with supplies. Suite au déroulement des événements ce matin-là, il encouragea ses gens de briser le camp mais fut ridiculisé par un membre ivre de sa tribu (Ceci était un exemple type du changement social subit par le peuple des Premières nations causé par la consommation d'alcool. But Walsh was not there, and Sitting Bull was told Walsh would not be back any time soon. Il excellait dans les manSuvres d'artillerie et de cavalerie. The fort itself is worth the time. Ces peaux étaient une denrée précieuse. It became the headquarters of the force in the West in 1878, and until it was dismantled and abandoned (1883), Fort Walsh played a vital …