[12] The name romaine came from that type's use in the Roman papal gardens, while cos, another term for romaine lettuce, came from the earliest European seeds of the type from the Greek island of Cos, a center of lettuce farming in the Byzantine period.

[7] L. scariola is itself a synonym for L. serriola, the common wild or prickly lettuce. The small loosely formed heads yield leaves that are at once delicate and yet strong enough to roll into lettuce wraps. [9], The Romans referred to lettuce as lactuca (lac meaning dairy in Latin), an allusion to the white substance, now called latex, exuded by cut stems. In 1586, Joachim Camerarius provided descriptions of the three basic modern lettuces – head lettuce, loose-leaf lettuce, and romaine (or cos) lettuce. Transplanted lettuce (started in flats and later moved to growing beds) is generally more competitive initially, but can still be crowded later in the season, causing misshapen lettuce and lower yields.

Heat generally prompts lettuce to bolt, with most varieties growing poorly above 24 °C (75 °F); cool temperatures prompt better performance, with 16 to 18 °C (61 to 64 °F) being preferred and as low as 7 °C (45 °F) being tolerated.

Plan your garden around growing and harvesting. Lettuce was also used in a larger variety of dishes than in Western countries, contributing to a range of dishes including bean curd and meat dishes, soups and stir-frys plain or with other vegetables. If you cut into or below the crown, the plant might die. [29] Although most lettuce grown today is used as a vegetable, a minor amount is used in the production of tobacco-free cigarettes; however, domestic lettuce's wild relatives produce a leaf that visually more closely resembles tobacco. Buttercrunch lettuce is a lettuce that forms a loose head. ‘Succession planting’ – planting lettuces at different intervals rather than all at once – will give you have a steady harvest of Buttercrunch lettuce every two weeks, rather than all at once. Bibb, a variety of butterhead lettuce; Bibb Correctional Facility, a state men's prison in Brent, Alabama; Bibb County High School, Centreville, Alabama; Bibb Manufacturing Company, a defunct American textile company; This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Bibb. [31] Plants in hot areas that are provided partial shade during the hottest part of the day will bolt more slowly. The religious ties of lettuce continue into the present day among the Yazidi people of northern Iraq, who have a religious prohibition against eating the plant. "[23] Its use in religious ceremonies resulted in the creation of many images in tombs and wall paintings.
You can also use neem oil if your lettuce suffers from fungal infections such as root rot, black spot, or sooty mold. World production of lettuce and chicory for 2017 was 27 million tonnes, 56% of which came from China.[4]. For example, the larvae of the ghost moth is a common pest of lettuce plants.

Learn more... Green, crisp and crunchy, Buttercrunch lettuce is one of the first lettuce varieties amateur gardeners plant.

Include your email address to get a message when this question is answered. If you don’t have a garden area, try growing your lettuce in a container that is at least 6–12 inches (15–30 cm) in diameter.

Thanks to all authors for creating a page that has been read 10,810 times. [40] Mammals, including rabbits and groundhogs, also eat the plants. Some gardeners opt to broadcast the seeds over the planting area.

If the soil looks or feels dry, or if the lettuce leaves are beginning to wilt, it’s time to water. [16] Lettuces have a wide range of shapes and textures, from the dense heads of the iceberg type to the notched, scalloped, frilly or ruffly leaves of leaf varieties. Generally grown as a hardy annual, lettuce is easily cultivated, although it requires relatively low temperatures to prevent it from flowering quickly. Lauren has worked for Aurora, Colorado managing the Water-Wise Garden at Aurora Municipal Center for the Water Conservation Department. sativa,[1] L. scariola var. Be careful when cutting. [5] The species was first described in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus in the second volume of his Species Plantarum.

Depending on the variety, lettuce is an excellent source (20% of the Daily Value, DV, or higher) of vitamin K (97% DV) and vitamin A (21% DV) (table), with higher concentrations of the provitamin A compound, beta-carotene, found in darker green lettuces, such as romaine.

The cultivated variety appears to have been about 75 cm (30 in) tall and resembled a large version of the modern romaine lettuce. We use cookies to make wikiHow great. Butterhead lettuce has soft, green, slightly curled leaves wrapped around a loose inner head of blanched, sweet flavored interior leaves.

If so, how long will it grow?

Never put buttercrunch lettuce in the freezer. However, when newly harvested lettuce seed is stored cryogenically, this life increases to a half-life of 500 years for vaporized nitrogen and 3,400 years for liquid nitrogen; this advantage is lost if seeds are not frozen promptly after harvesting.[35]. She earned a BA in Environmental and Sustainability Studies from Western Michigan University in 2014. Butter lettuce has a delicious, buttery flavor that is good to use in salads or on sandwiches. Post-Roman Europe continued the tradition of poaching lettuce, mainly with large romaine types, as well as the method of pouring a hot oil and vinegar mixture over the leaves. Last Updated: April 12, 2020

Butterhead lettuces are sought after for their “buttery” flavor and velvety texture. If you're growing lettuce over the summer, then the heat may cause the crop to bolt, which will make it taste bitter. Use a long handled kitchen knife with a thin blade. Certain varieties contain more than others, and some selective breeding and genetic modification studies have focused on using this trait to identify and produce commercial varieties with increased pest resistance.

For an organic option, use compost or a fish emulsion that is mixed at half of the recommended dose on the package. [32], Food-borne pathogens that can survive on lettuce include Listeria monocytogenes, the causative agent of listeriosis, which multiplies in storage. It is even effective in controlling aphids and caterpillars, which generally can’t be controlled by other chemical insecticides.

There are 21 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. Lettuce will also cross with Lactuca serriola (wild lettuce), with the resulting seeds often producing a plant with tough, bitter leaves. This harvesting technique is commonly known as a ‘cut-and-come-again’ method. I have 6 plants, 3 of which I plan to let grow to a head and 3. Weeds also act as homes for insects and disease and can make harvesting more difficult. 2007 June 13, Florence Fabricant, “A New Yogurt Maker, With an Eye on Earth”, in New York Times ‎ [1]: Satur Farms in Cutchogue, N.Y., grows lush heads of herbaceous, velvety tender green and red butterhead lettuce, picking them daily and trucking them to several New York markets, …

Pests to watch out for when rinsing lettuce include slugs, aphids, and small green caterpillars. A salad spinner is a great alternative for drying lettuce before eating or storing. Circa 50 AD, Roman agriculturalist Columella described several lettuce varieties – some of which may have been ancestors of today's lettuces. [56] Folk medicine has also claimed it as a treatment for pain, rheumatism, tension and nervousness, coughs and insanity; scientific evidence of these benefits in humans has not been found. For example, ancient Egyptians thought lettuce to be a symbol of sexual prowess[45] and a promoter of love and childbearing in women. However, genetically modified lettuce is not currently used in commercial agriculture. Lettuce spaced farther apart receives more sunlight, which improves color and nutrient quantities in the leaves. The soil should be rich, smooth, and well-drained. The high water content of lettuce (94.9 percent) creates problems when attempting to preserve the plant – it cannot be successfully frozen, canned or dried and must be eaten fresh. This article has been viewed 16,845 times. [31] After harvest, lettuce lasts the longest when kept at 0 °C (32 °F) and 96 percent humidity. These lettuces tend to be larger, bolt-resistant and well-flavored. Because the seeds are so small, some brands make pelleted seeds. This plant was probably selectively bred by the Egyptians into a plant grown for its edible leaves,[22] with evidence of its cultivation appearing as early as 2680 BC. The seeds need light to germinate, so it’s important that you don’t cover them with a thick layer of soil. Fungal diseases include powdery mildew and downy mildew, which cause leaves to mold and die and bottom rot, lettuce drop and gray mold, which cause entire plants to rot and collapse. The fruits have 5–7 ribs on each side and are tipped by two rows of small white hairs. Once your plants reach 6–10 inches (15–25 cm), cut off the top 2–4 inches (5.1–10.2 cm) to keep them growing. [39], Soil nutrient deficiencies can cause a variety of plant problems that range from malformed plants to a lack of head growth. The pappus remains at the top of each fruit as a dispersal structure. Lettuce leaves can also be found in soups, sandwiches and wraps, while the stems are eaten both raw and cooked.

[1], The domestication of lettuce over the centuries has resulted in several changes through selective breeding: delayed bolting, larger seeds, larger leaves and heads, better taste and texture, a lower latex content, and different leaf shapes and colors. Unlike other varieties of lettuce, butter lettuce is rich in vitamins and nutrients like Vitamin A and Vitamin K.

Lettuce has mild narcotic properties; it was called "sleepwort" by the Anglo-Saxons because of this attribute, although the cultivated L. sativa has lower levels of the narcotic than its wild cousins.